-- In quantum theory observables can be represented by Hermitian matrices.

-- If an observable of a system can be represented by a particular matrix at a particular instant, then all matrices of the same dimension represent observables of that system.

-- In a state specified by the vector |psi>, an observable X is sharp if and only if X|psi> = x|psi> for some real number x. In which case x is an eigenvalue of X and |psi> is an eigenvector of X.

Now let Y be any matrix that

*does not*have |psi> among its eigenvectors. (For any vector, there exists an infinity of such matrices.)

If the actual state is |psi>, the observable Y cannot be sharp. (Because of the 'if and only if' above.)

## Comments (1)

In other words, not all observables of a system are sharp at any given point in time. (Sharp means the same in all universes.)

curiat 5:58 PM on September 4, 2017 | #8982 | reply | quote